Launch pad # 1 or “Gagarin launch pad” is a launch pad at the Baikonur cosmodrome, from which the Vostok spacecraft was launched for the first time on April 12, 1961, with pilot-cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin on board. The first successful launch of the R-7 ICBM from the site was carried out on August 21, 1957.
Launch pad # 31 is a pad at the Baikonur cosmodrome used for launching payloads using launch vehicles based on the first Soviet Intercontinental ballistic rocket, the R-7. On January 14, 1961 the launch device # 6 of launch site # 31 was used for the first time, for test of the R-7A ICBM. On January 14, 1969, the Soyuz-4 spacecraft went into space from this launch pad, and in October 1969, the Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft were launched.
Site #2 memorial complex museum of the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Located on the territory of the cosmodrome, the Museum has a luxurious collection of exhibits, photos, real rocket elements -engines, fairing, navigation devices, and much more. It consists of three parts: a spacious two-story building, an open-air exposition (which includes a model of the Buran orbital Shuttle ), and two historical houses where the father of Soviet cosmonautics, Sergei Korolev, lived and worked and second house is where the first cosmonaut of the planet, Yuri Gagarin, spent the night before his mission.
The Cosmonaut hotel is a three-building complex that was built for the purpose of training cosmonauts before launch. A pre-flight press conference is also held here. On the territory of the complex there is a recreation area with a beautiful view of the Syr-Darya river. Cosmonauts alley, located on the territory of the complex is where cosmonauts plant trees before their first flight into space.
Monitoring station “Saturn” on site # 23 is a measurment facility that was created in July 1966 as part of the Soyuz spaceship program. The landmark of site # 23 are two receiving and transmitting antennas P-200 (mirror diameter-25 m, total weight of the structure -more than 200 tons) of the multifunctional command and measurement system “Saturn-MS”, which were used from 1970 to 2001 to control satellites, orbital stations and interplanetary vehicles.
Assembly-and-test building on site # 112 Currently used by the JSC “RKTs-“Progress” is intended for the assembly of the Soyuz rocket and connection of the payload with the rocket. During the manned mission, the rocket is transported from here to the launch complex. In the 60s, the Soviet lunar launch vehicle “N1” was assembled and modified here. In the 80’s, work for the Energia-Buran program was carried out here. You can also see and take photos of the transport and installation device for the “Energia-Buran” system here (the metal beams on it are shaped like grasshopper legs, hence the nickname “grasshopper”).
Assembly-and-test building on site # 254 Currently used by the JSC “RSC “Energia” for the assembly of the Soyuz and Progress orbiters. Here is where the crew puts on the spacesuits and reports to the state commission about their mission brfore launch.
Universal complex start-stand (UCSS) for “Energia” rocket on site # 250A. The fortified bunker (structure 60) was used to control the refueling, cooling and launching of the superheavy Energia rocket . From here, on may 15, 1987, the launch of the “Energia SKIF-DM” system was controlled. Visitors will be able to take photos inside at the control room and feel involved in the most important event – the start.
Launch pad of Energia-Buran system on site # 110. This launch pad was previously used for the Soviet lunar program N1, later refited for processing the needs of the Energia-Buran project. On November 15, 1988, the first ever fully unmanned spaceship “Buran” was launched from this launch pad. The viewing of the object is only possible from outside the perimeter.
Launch pad for a “Proton” rocket site # 200. There are two launchers located on the site: No. 39 (“left”) and No. 40 (“right”). Interplanetary probes to Venus and Mars and modules of orbital stations (for example, the Mir space station ), were launched from site 200.
Monument to the deceased on the launch pad for intercontinental ballistic missiles R-16 site # 41. On October 24, 1960, at approximately 18:45, an unexpected activation of the second stage engine occurred, causing the oxidizer and fuel tanks of the first stage to explode, killing 78 people in exposion and injuring 42. The Hero of the Soviet Union , Marshal M.I.Nedelin, perished in the incident. Memorial to the victims of the incident was erected on the site 41 on October 1998, at the initiative of the commander of the military unit 44275 Vladimir Tomchuk.
Assembly and testing facility on site # 42 currently under the management of the Baiterek RSC was originally intended for the preparation of Zenit rocket. There are two transportation vechicles for “Zenit” on site 42 . At the moment, the facility is being upgraded for the Soyuz-5 rocket.
Launch pad for the “Zenit” rocket on site # 45 the launch complex operated by Baiterek RSC was created for testing and launching the “Zenit” rocket. It consists of 2 launchers. At the launch complex there are mobile towers , nicknamed “Birdhouses”, designed for boarding the spaceship, which was supposed to be launched using the “Zenit” rocket. At the moment, it is being upgraded for the Soyuz-5.
State budgetary educational institution “Lyceum” international space school named in honor of V. N. Chelomey” has three study branches : physical-mathematical, chemical-biological, scientific-technical. The Lyceum is a specialized school of Bauman Moscow State Technical University and is an educational platform for a number of National and International Olympiads, competitions, conferences and competitions. There is also a large number of unique exhibits of rockets and space technology. Lyceum students create active models of space rockets.
The “Science and space” monument is a postcard for the city of Baikonur. The magnificent monument is dedicated to the experimental mission “Soyuz-Apollo”, and was opened on April 12, 1975 in the Shubnikov park. The monument is a woman with a globe in one hand and a rocket in the other, pointing upwards, which represents the connection between science and space. Authors of the monument are sculptors V. Protko, T. Vyibran and architect N. Asatur.
The monument “Weightlessness” is the hallmark of the city of Baikonur. The monument is dedicated to the first human EVA on March 18, 1965. Lockals gave it a nickname “The Fisherman”.
Monument to Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel and transporter device of the RS-16A (SS-7 Saddler) ballistic missile , which was in service until 1994.
Arbat (Korolev Ave.) is a pedestrian street, lovingly decorated by soldiers on the initiative of General Yuri Averkievich Zhukov in 1989 after the Moscow Arbat street. There are benches, street lights, and many cafes and shops.
Lenin square and the adjacent pedestrian part of Korolev Avenue are the city center, the venue for celebrations. The “Centralnaya” hotel, the old Universal store building, the old garrison officer club, monument to Vladimir Ilich Lenin and the former headquarters of the military – now the main office of JSC “TsENKI” and the SC “ROSCOSMOS” are located here.